Throughout history, trends in furniture design have evolved alongside societies, the materials they had access to, and advancements in technology. Today’s historian thus has a variety of characteristics to apply to furniture to determine the date in which it was made.
• Categorized by species: Furniture periods are sometimes defined by the prevailing species of the time.
• Categorized by century: Many furniture periods span multiple centuries, but general design themes can be attributed defined 100-year spans.
When people learned to farm and lived in permanent settlements they began to make furniture. In Europe some of the earliest known furniture comes from a stone age a village at Sara Brae in the Orkney Islands in Scotland about 2,000 BC. The stone age farmers lived in stone huts with roofs of whalebone and turf. Inside they made stone furniture such as cupboards and beds.
Ancient Egyptian Furniture
Meanwhile in Egypt rich Egyptians lived in large, comfortable houses with many rooms. Walls were painted and floors had colored tiles. Inside their homes rich Egyptians had wooden furniture such as beds, chairs, tables and chests for storage.
However instead of pillows they used wooden head rests.
Ordinary people lived in simpler homes made of mud. People may have slept on the flat roof when it was hot and they did most of their work outside because of the heat. For the poor furniture was very basic. Ordinary Egyptians sat on brick benches around the walls. They used reed chests or wooden pegs on walls to store things.
Ancient Greek Furniture
In Ancient Greece even in a rich home furniture was basic. The Greeks stored things in wooden chests or hung them from wooden pegs on the walls. A rich home would also have a dresser to display expensive cups. People reclined on couches (which could also act as beds). The couches were simply wooden frames with rope webbing and mats or rugs laid on top.
In Rome rich people enjoyed luxuries such as mosaics and (in colder parts of the empire) panes of glass in windows and even a form of central heating called a hypocaust. Wealthy Romans also had wall paintings called murals in their houses.
The wealthy owned very comfortable furniture. It was upholstered and finely carved. People ate while reclining on couches. Oil lamps were used for light. Of course for the poor Roman furniture was very basic and sparse.
Life even for rich Saxons was hard and rough and furniture was very simple. Usually in a Saxon hall there was only one room shared by everybody. Thanes (upper class Saxons) and their followers slept on beds with straw mattresses and pillows but the poorest people slept on the floor.
Very little is known about Saxon furniture but it must have been basic and heavy such as wooden benches and tables although upper class Saxons liked having tapestries on their walls. There were no panes of glass in windows.
Furniture in the Middle Ages
In Saxon times a rich man and his entire household lived together in one great hall. In the Middle Ages the great hall was still the centre of a castle but the lord had his own room above it. This room was called the solar. In it the lord slept in a bed, which was surrounded by curtains, both for privacy and to keep out draughts. The other members of the lord’s household, such as his servants, slept on the floor of the great hall. At one or both ends of the great hall there was a fireplace and chimney. However in the Middle Ages chimneys were a luxury.
About 1180 for the first time since the Romans rich people began to have panes of glass in the windows.
Medieval furniture was very basic. Even in a rich household chairs were rare. Often only the lord sat on one so he was the ‘chairman’. Most people sat on stools or benches. Rich people also had tables and large chests, which doubled up as beds. Rich peoples homes were hung with wool tapestries or painted linen. They were not just for decoration. They also helped keep out draughts. In the Middle Ages furniture (for the rich) was usually made of oak.
16th Century Furniture
In the 16th century life became more comfortable for the wealthy. Furniture was more plentiful than in the Middle Ages but it was still basic. In a wealthy home it was usually made of oak and was heavy and massive. 16th century furniture was expected to last for generations. You expected to pass it on to your children and even your grandchildren. Comfortable beds became more and more common in the 16th century and increasing numbers of middle class people slept on feather mattresses rather than straw ones.
In the 16th century chairs were more common than in the Middle Ages but they were still expensive. Even in an upper class home children and servants sat on stools. The poor had to make do with stools and benches.
During the 16th century glass windows became much more common. However the poor still had to make do with strips of linen soaked in linseed oil.
Chimneys were also a luxury in the 16th century, although they became more common. Poor people simply had a hole in the roof to let out the smoke.
In wealthy Tudor houses the walls of rooms were lined with oak panelling to keep out drafts. People slept in four-poster beds hung with curtains to reduce drafts. In the 16th century some people had wallpaper but it was very expensive. Other wealthy people hung tapestries or painted cloths on their walls.
None of the improvements in 16th century furniture applied to the poor. They continued to live in simple huts with one or two rooms (occasionally three). Smoke escaped through a hole in the thatched roof. Floors were of hard earth and furniture was very basic, benches, stools, a table and wooden chests. They slept on mattresses stuffed with straw or thistledown. The mattresses lay on ropes strung across a wooden frame.
17th Century Furniture
In the late 17th century furniture for the wealthy became more comfortable and much more finely decorated. In the early 17th century furniture was plain and heavy. It was usually made of oak. In the late 17th century furniture for the rich was often made of walnut or (from the 1680s) mahogany. It was decorated in new ways. One was veneering. (Thin pieces of expensive wood were laid over cheaper wood). Some furniture was also inlaid. Wood was carved out and the hollow was filled in with mother of pearl. At this time lacquering arrived in England. Pieces of furniture were coated with lacquer in bright colours.
Furthermore new types of furniture were introduced in Stuart times. In the mid 17th century chests of drawers became common. Grandfather clocks also became popular. Later in the century the bookcase was introduced.
Chairs also became far more comfortable. Upholstered (padded and covered) chairs became common in wealthy people’s homes. In the 1680s the first real armchairs appeared.
However all the improvements in Stuart furniture did not apply to the poor. Their furniture, such as it was remained very plain and basic.
18th Century Furniture
In the 18th century the wealthy owned comfortable upholstered furniture. They owned beautiful furniture, some of it veneered or inlaid. To understand the term “18th-century furniture,” it will be most instructive to refer to the following terms, all of which may also be defined as 18th century: William and Mary, Queen Anne, Georgian, Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, Adam, Regency, Federal, and the French periods of the several Louis, Directoire, and Empire.
In the 18th century much fine furniture was made by Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779). In 1754 he published a catalogue The Gentlemean and Cabinet Makers Director. Another furniture maker was George Hepplewhite (?-1786). In 1788 his widow published a book of his designs The Cabinet Maker and Upholsterer’s Guide, which had a big influence on Regency furniture. Thomas Sheraton (1751-1806) was a cabinet maker. In 1791-93 he published his designs in The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing Book. The famous clockmaker James Cox (1723-1800) made exquisite clocks for the rich.
In America the first great cabinet makers were Duncan Phyfe (1768-1854), John Goddard (1724-1785) and Samuel McIntire (1757-1811).
As usual furniture for the poor remained basic and sparse.
19th Century Furniture
The 19th century is marked by the Industrial Revolution, which caused profound changes in society. With increasing working populations in cities, with the rise of a new class of wealthy (but not necessarily informed) furniture buyers, together with the arrival of mass-production and the consequent demise of the individual craftsman-designer, the gradual progression of furniture styles that had characterized previous centuries was replaced by a riot of often poorly imitated styles.
Since mass-production of parts became easy and inexpensive, it was a simple matter to graft more or less historically correct ornaments onto all sorts of furniture, thereby making possible a continual stream of “revival” styles to whet the public’s appetite. The result was a century of furniture whose commonest denominator was excessive ornament in the form of applied metal or wood carvings, inlays, or stencils, marketed variously under the guise of so-called Rococo Revival, Gothic Revival, Renaissance and Italian Revivals, Greek, Roman, and Egyptian Revivals, and even various Eastern Revivals.
Well off Victorians lived in very comfortable houses. (Although their servants lived in cramped quarters, often in the attic). To us middle class Victorian homes would seem overcrowded with furniture, ornaments and knick-knacks. However only a small minority could afford this comfortable lifestyle.
In the early 19th century the poorest people slept on piles of straw because they could not afford beds.
In the early 19th century skilled workers usually lived houses with two rooms downstairs and two upstairs. The downstairs front room was kept for best. The family kept their best furniture and ornaments in this room. They spent most of the their time in the downstairs back room, which served as a kitchen and living room. As the 19th century passed more and more working class Victorians could afford this lifestyle.
20th Century Furniture
The term”20th Century” is only very generally useful, since it includes so many distinct styles more usefully understood on their own. But it can be taken to refer to anything produced after the 19th century, and by and large as representing relatively contemporary furniture as opposed to period furniture.
At the start of the 20th century working class homes had two rooms downstairs. The front room and the back room. The front room was kept for best and children were not allowed to play there. In the front room the family kept their best furniture and ornaments. The back room was the kitchen and it was where the family spent most of their time. Most families cooked on a coal-fired stove called a range, which also heated the room.
This lifestyle changed in the early 20th century as gas cookers became common. They did not heat the room so people began to spend most of their time in the front room or living room, by the fire. Rising living standards meant it was possible to furnish all rooms properly not just one. During the 20th century ordinary people’s furniture greatly improved in quality and design.
In the 1920s and 1930s a new style of furniture and architecture was introduced. It was called Art Deco and it used geometric shapes instead of the flowing lines of the earlier Art Nouveau. The name Art Deco came from an exhibition held in Paris in 1925 called the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs.
In the late 20th century Britain became an affluent society and standards of furniture for ordinary people continued to rise.
Two famous furniture designers of the 20th century are Ron Arad (1951-) and John Makepeace (1939-).